1 Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

What is it?

The impingement syndrome is exactly what it says ,it’s the entrapment of a tendon of a small muscle at the front of the shoulder that rotates the arm called the supraspinatus muscle gets pinched below the acromion causing tendonitis.

Shoulder Impingement Syndrome, Swimmers Shoulder, Throwers Shoulder, Supraspinatus Tendinitis and a Painful Arc Syndrome are all terms used to describe the problem.

Symptoms ?

Impingement syndrome causes generalized shoulder aches. It also causes pain when raising the arm out to the side or in front of the body or performing overhead tasks. Most patients complain that the pain makes it difficult for them to sleep, especially when they roll onto the affected shoulder. A reliable sign of impingement syndrome is a sharp pain when you try to reach into your back pocket. A catching sensation is felt when you lower your arm.

This usually occurs when the arm is held out to the side (abduction) and to a lesser extent when the arm is raised in front of you (flexion). The entrapment begins when the arm is positioned just below shoulder level and releases just above shoulder level. The entrapment causes pain and small, accumulative trauma to the supraspinatus tendon that cause the tendon to thicken and leads to a chronic inflammatory reaction, untreated it may lead to a rotator cuff  tear. If there are degenerative changes under the acromion this can compound the problem. Osteoarthritis causes a roughening of the under-surface (known as osteophytes or bone spurs) which narrow the space for the tendon.

2 Rotator Cuff Tear

 What is it?

The rotator cuff is an important group of four muscles that surround the shoulder joint. They are important in providing stability to the shoulder joint and work in combination with other
muscles to rotate the shoulder inwards (such as putting your hand behind your back), outwards (such as putting your hand behind your head) and bring the arm out to the side.The tendons of the rotator cuff, not the muscles, are most commonly torn. Of the four tendons, the one belonging to the supraspinatus muscle is most frequently torn where it passes below the tip of the shoulder (acromion. Severity of a tear will vary and they are often classified by experts in grades 1-4 .

Poor posture that leads to a flattened mid back and rounded shoulders impact on the good alignment required at the shoulder joint coordination of the surrounding muscles will be compromised  and lead to disproportional wear usually to the supraspinatus tendon.


Same as impingement syndrome only lowering the arm is also painful and lacks control.

3 Frozen Shoulder

What is it?

The shoulder capsule or the flexible covering that surrounds the joint inflames stiffens and becomes painful. It occurs gradually with mobility reducing with time .


Painful  front and back of the shoulder which  can refer in the upper arm with a very limited movement


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