Pain over the joint line and reduced range of movement with swelling and locking are typical.
The cartilage[meniscus] is the shock absorber of the knee and is made of cartilage There are two cartilages in the knee one on the inside [medial] one on the outside lateral] injury occurs when the foot is fixed and the knee twists.
The Iliotibial band is a strong, thick band of fibrous tissue that runs along the outside of the thigh. It is attached to muscles in the buttock area and on the outer side of the hip and runs along the outer thigh and attaches on the outside edge of the shin bone (tibia) just below the knee joint. It is responsible for stabilising the thigh bone during weight-bearing activities such as walking and running. Occasionally the Iliotibial can become irritated and inflamed resulting in pain. This is a condition known as Iliotibial Band Syndrome or ‘Runners Knee’.
The medial [inside] and lateral [outside]collateral ligaments
(MCL)[LCL] is one of four ligaments that are very important to the stability of the knee joint. A ligament is made of tough fibrous material and functions to control excessive movement in the joint. The MCL runs along the inside of the knee between the end of the thigh bone (femur) to the top of the shin bone (tibia). The LCL runs along the outside of the knee between the end of the thigh bone (femur) to the top of the shin bone (tibia). When the ligament is over stretched it can result in injury, inflammation and pain on the inside of the knee if MCL and outside of the knee if LCL. In more severe case this can also result in cartilage damage and / or the anterior cruciate ligament at the same time.
The anterior cruciate (ACL)and posterior cruciate ligaments are two of four ligaments that are very important to the stability of the knee joint. The ACL and PCL are positioned in the centre of the knee joint and connects the base of the thigh bone (femur) with the top of the top of the shin bone (tibia)
The ACL mainly resists forward movement of the shin bone and the PCL backwards movement. When the ligaments are over stretched it can result in injury, inflammation and pain on the inside ACL or outside PCL of the knee. This results in varying degrees of instability depending on the extent of the injury.
Clinicians often refer to a grading system which classifies the extent of the injury: